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CBD Oil for Your Dog: Everything You Need to Know

DATE:November 27, 2018 BY:Joey DiFrancesco

This article is not a substitute for veterinary diagnosis or treatment of any condition, symptom, or disease. Please consult with your veterinarian before using hemp products on your pet.

Here at LolaHemp, we want our customers to be knowledgeable about CBD oil and its potential health benefits. This article is meant to be your one-stop-shop for learning more about this natural product, how it works, and more about the scientific research on CBD that has been going on for 3 decades. 

We will start with some frequently asked questions about CBD for dogs. If you would like to click through to our comprehensive list of research on CBD oil, click here

Answering Your Questions About CBD:

What is CBD?


What is the difference between CBD oil and Hemp oil?


How does it work?


Is CBD Legal?


What does “full spectrum” mean?


Is CBD oil safe for pets?


How much should I give my dog?


How do I give it to my dog?


Can CBD be applied topically?


Can CBD interact with other medications?


What if my vet won't discuss CBD oil?


Are there research studies about CBD oil?


What is CBD?

CBD is short for cannabidiol, a compound that is one of 80+ “cannabinoids” found in the cannabis family of plants. In particular, it is found and often extracted from hemp, a set of strains in the cannabis family that are defined by law to have less than .3% of another well known cannabinoid, THC.

For pet owners, the fact that hemp is low in THC is important. This is the compound found in higher concentrations in medical and recreational grades of marijuanna that causes the “high” associated with use of this plant. And, turns out that our pets are extra sensitive to large amounts of THC.  

CBD, on the other hand, does not have psychoactive effects. And, it has been the subject of decades of research as to its potential health and wellness benefits. And, yes, it is safe for our pets. 

Interestingly, cannabinoids are not just found in plants from the cannabis family. For example, plants in the cone flower and daisy families, among others, also contain cannabinoids. And, many common foods such as chocolate, tea, turmeric, cinnamon, and oregano stimulate the body’s endocannabinoid system in ways similar to cannabinoids found in plants. 

As the chart below explores, there are actually 3 classes of cannabinoids, including endocannabinoids that are actually produced by the body itself as part of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS, in turn, is responsible for acting to balance many natural processes in the body including mood, sleep, digestion, skin health, and pain and inflammation responses among others. 

What is the difference between CBD oil and Hemp Oil?

Great question! There is a lot of confusion about these two terms because the hemp industry often uses these terms interchangeably. In other words, they usually refer to the same thing. Both are extracts made from the hemp plant in most cases, and both include the addition of a carrier oil such as MCT oil in order to balance the concentration of CBD in the product. 

On the other hand, Hemp Seed oil is a completely different product. Made from refining the oil from the seeds of the hemp plant, this oil has little or no CBD in it since this particular compound is not found in high concentrations in the seeds. 

Hempseed oil is generally sold as a dietary supplement because it is high in fatty acids among other things. However, it will not provide enough CBD to give your pet the benefits associated with this important cannabinoid. 

Be sure to click on the article below to  learn more about these differences:

Hemp Seed Oil, Hemp Oil, and CBD Oil for Dogs: What’s the Difference?

How does it work?

Most of the research on CBD oil on mental and physical functions in the body are focused on how the compound stimulates the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) which is found in the body of all mammals. This system, which was discovered in the early 1990’s, is responsible for balancing a wide variety of other systems in the body including digestion, mood, skin, immunity, inflammatory responses, and more. 

The ECS includes the body’s own production of endocannabinoids as well as special receptors and transmitters found throughout the body. This system then communicates with other systems in the body such as the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, the brain, and the skin. 

Is CBD legal?

Yes. The 2018 Farm Bill made hemp and hemp products legal in all 50 states. And, CBD for pets is available without a prescription. 

That being said, there are strict regulations on the legal classification of hemp, farming, and labeling of hemp based products. Many of these regulations are still being worked out as states transition from the prohibition of all cannabis products to the federal legalization of hemp, a special class of cannabis with less than .3% of the psychoactive compound THC. 

What does “full spectrum” mean?

When it comes to dogs and CBD Oil (a.k.a. Hemp Oil), there are two main classifications: Full Spectrum and CBD isolate. 

CBD Isolate: 

Unless a CBD product is labeled as full spectrum, chances are it is based on a CBD isolate formula. During extraction, chemical and mechanical processes are used to refine and isolate the specific compound CBD, usually into a powder, before adding this purified powder to tinctures, edibles, and topicals. 

Products based on CBD isolate usually contain zero THC, often used as a selling point. However, critics of CBD isolate products point out that they lack the supportive healing effects of a whole plant cannabinoid profile, known by researchers as “The Entourage Effect”

Full Spectrum CBD Oil:

On the other hand, full spectrum CBD products carefully refine the whole hemp plant with gentle methods to preserve the delicate balance of cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes found in hemp. There is research to support the idea that full spectrum oils are more effective because, even in trace amounts, the other compounds found in hemp have a synergistic healing effect, known by scientists as The Entourage Effect. 

That being said, not all full spectrum products are the same. Be sure to view the third party lab tests of any CBD oil before you buy. Here at LolaHemp, our hemp oil for dogs  is a robust full spectrum oil that contains a wide range of cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes that are naturally occurring in the hemp plant. Want to be sure? Check out our Lab Tests

Is CBD oil safe for dogs?

The safety of CBD in people and pets has been tested in a clinical context. It has been deemed safe for both with minimal adverse effects which can include a sedative effect and mild gastrointestinal effects such as diarrhea. In fact, the side effects of CBD oil for dogs are often less severe than the potential adverse effects from commonly prescribed veterinary medications. 

That being said, major longitudinal clinical tests are still lacking. However, many vets and pet parents alike need to weigh the risks and benefits in context. For example, many commonly prescribed veterinary medications have known side effects, some of which are debilitating and quite severe (see table below). 

In addition, CBD can interact with other medications, similar to other foods and medication classed as CYP450 metabolic pathway inhibitors. To learn more, see our article CBD Oil for Dogs: Potential Drug Interactions.

How much should I give my dog?

At this time, there is no industry standard in terms of the concentration of CBD oil for pets (or people). This means that two drops of one product can have dramatically different amounts of CBD than two drops of another brand. 

Be sure that you buy canine CBD oil from a company that offers clear dosing instructions for their product, such as LolaHemp. Below you will find dosing instructions for our full spectrum CBD oil for pets. 

According to research, CBD has a wide range of safe dosing parameters. The general rule of thumb is to start low, and increase slowly until the desired results are achieved. 

How do I give it to my dog?

CBD can be administered both topically or orally. For example, if you purchase a CBD oil tincture then you can place the drops on your hand for your dog to lick up, or add their dose to some food so that they ingest it. 

You can also administer tinctures or specially formulated CBD topicals directly to the skin to soothe inflammation from allergies or hot spots. 

Can CBD oil be applied topically?

Yes. In fact, there are several potential benefits to the topical administration of CBD products, including:

  • * Target the area of the skin or joints most affected by pain and inflammation

  • * Faster absorption which bypasses the digestive system

  • * Quicker relief from itchiness or stiffness

  • * Soothe and moisturize the affected area

You can apply either the CBD oil tinctures directly to the skin, or purchase a CBD oil balm made just for pets, such as that offered here at LolaHemp. If you decide to go for a cream or salve, look for natural ingredients that have been added to support the skin soothing properties of CBD. 

Here at LolaHemp, we want only the best for your pet. Our CBD infused balm starts with our full spectrum and organic hemp oil with the following natural ingredients added to boost the skin healing support of our salve:

  • * Glycine Soja (Soybean) Oil

  • * Beeswax

  • * Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil

  • * Shea Butter

  • * Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice

Can CBD oil interact with other medications?

Yes. If your pet is taking other medications, it is very important that you discuss using CBD with your vet first.

CBD oil, like many other foods and medications, is known as a CYP450 metabolic pathway inhibitor. That is, it can interfere with the metabolism of pharmaceuticals that make use of the Cytochrome P450 family of enzymes found in the liver. 

For example, if you take heart medications, you may have been told by your doctor to avoid eating grapefruit within a few hours of taking your medications. This is the same kind of interaction we need to be aware of with CBD for dogs. 

To learn more about CBD and drug interactions, be sure to check out our full article on the subject here: CBD Oil for Dogs: Potential Drug Interactions.

What if my vet won't discuss CBD oil with me?

Although CBD oil for pets is available without a prescription, we still recommend that our customers talk with their vet about the use of our product. This is because not only can CBD interact with other medications, but we do not feel it is responsible to diagnose and treat your pet without the advice of a qualified veterinarian. 

However, because veterinarian licensure is controlled at the state level, some vets are restricted from even discussing CBD for fear of loss of their license. And, because the use of CBD in human and animal health is relatively new, some vets prefer to wait until more research is done on dosing and treatment with CBD products. 

One potential avenue to explore if your traditional vet will not discuss the use of CBD with you is to consult with a holistic veterinarian in your area. Not only do holistic vets have all of the same training as traditional vets, they have added training in the use of non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical options, such as nutraceuticals. 

Many holistic vets have been using canine CBD in their clinical practice for years and have the experience with other pets in their care to give you solid guidance on the safe use of CBD as part of your dog’s overall wellness plan. 

One other piece of advice that we can offer is that if your vet recommends traditional pharmaceuticals for your pet is to ask them thoroughly discuss the risks and potential side effects of the drug. This can help you make an informed decision based on what is best for your pet. 

Research Studies that Explore the Potential Health Benefits of CBD Oil

Cannabidiol and the Endocannabinoid System have been the subject of scientific and medical research for 30 years. While veterinary medicine has been somewhat behind the curve, there are also some studies on pets, including a few clinical trials. 

We want our customers and all interested people to educate themselves about the ongoing research on cannabis based compounds, including CBD. Below you can find links to peer reviewed research studies to learn more!

Anxiety

Wright M, Di Ciano P, Brands B. Use of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety: A Short Synthesis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 2020.

Jurkus R, Day HLL, Guimarães FS, Lee JLC, Bertoglio LJ, Stevenson CW. Cannabidiol Regulation of Learned Fear: Implications for Treating Anxiety-Related Disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:454.

Masataka N. Anxiolytic Effects of Repeated Cannabidiol Treatment in Teenagers With Social Anxiety Disorders. Front Psychol. 2019;10:2466.

Assareh N, Gururajan A, Zhou C, Luo JL, Kevin RC, Arnold JC. Cannabidiol disrupts conditioned fear expression and cannabidiolic acid reduces trauma-induced anxiety-related behaviour in mice. Behav Pharmacol. May 2020.

Zieba J, Sinclair D, Sebree T, et al. Cannabidiol (CBD) reduces anxiety-related behavior in mice via an FMRP-independent mechanism. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2019;181:93-100.

Arthritis

Philpott HT, O’Brien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017;158(12):2442.

Gamble L-J, Boesch JM, Frye CW, et al. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs. Front Vet Sci. 2018;5:165.

Malfait AM, Gallily R, Sumariwalla PF, et al. The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(17):9561-9566.

Digestion and Gut Health

Izzo AA, Muccioli GG, Ruggieri MR, Schicho R. Endocannabinoids and the Digestive Tract and Bladder in Health and Disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2015;231:423-447.

Capasso R, Borrelli F, Aviello G, et al. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154(5):1001-1008.

De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, et al. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159.

Couch DG, Cook H, Ortori C, Barrett D, Lund JN, O’Sullivan SE. Palmitoylethanolamide and Cannabidiol Prevent Inflammation-induced Hyperpermeability of the Human Gut In Vitro and In Vivo—A Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Controlled Trial. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2019;25(6):1006-1018.

Drug Interactions

Bornheim LM, Grillo MP. Characterization of cytochrome P450 3A inactivation by cannabidiol: possible involvement of cannabidiol-hydroxyquinone as a P450 inactivator. Chem Res Toxicol. 1998;11(10):1209-1216.

Full Spectrum and the Entourage Effect

Maayah ZH, Takahara S, Ferdaoussi M, Dyck JRB. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the biological benefits of full-spectrum cannabis extract in the treatment of neuropathic pain and inflammation. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020;1866(7):165771.

Hecksel R, LaVigne J, Streicher JM. In Defense of the “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Found in Cannabis sativa Activate the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 In Vitro. The FASEB Journal. 2020;34(S1):1-1.

Russo EB. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;9.

Ferber SG, Namdar D, Hen-Shoval D, et al. The “Entourage Effect”: Terpenes Coupled with Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders. Current Neuropharmacology. 2020;18(2):87-96.

Inflammation

Burstein S. Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015;23(7):1377-1385.

Barrie N, Manolios N. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm. 2017;4(3):210-218.

Maayah ZH, Takahara S, Ferdaoussi M, Dyck JRB. The molecular mechanisms that underpin the biological benefits of full-spectrum cannabis extract in the treatment of neuropathic pain and inflammation. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020;1866(7):165771.

De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, et al. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159.

Staton PC, Hatcher JP, Walker DJ, et al. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 plays a role in mechanical hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Pain. 2008;139(1):225-236.

Nausea

Parker LA, Mechoulam R, Schlievert C. Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component of cannabis and its synthetic dimethylheptyl homolog suppress nausea in an experimental model with rats. Neuroreport. 2002;13(5):567-570.

Rock EM, Bolognini D, Limebeer CL, et al. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, attenuates vomiting and nausea-like behaviour via indirect agonism of 5-HT(1A) somatodendritic autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165(8):2620-2634.

Pain

Barrie N, Manolios N. The endocannabinoid system in pain and inflammation: Its relevance to rheumatic disease. Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm. 2017;4(3):210-218.

Staton PC, Hatcher JP, Walker DJ, et al. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 plays a role in mechanical hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Pain. 2008;139(1):225-236.

Philpott HT, O’Brien M, McDougall JJ. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Pain. 2017;158(12):2442.

Gregorio DD, De Gregorio D, McLaughlin RJ, et al. Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain. PAIN. 2019;160(1):136-150.

Genaro K, Fabris D, Arantes ALF, Zuardi AW, Crippa JAS, Prado WA. Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:391.

Safety

Bartner LR, McGrath S, Rao S, Hyatt LK, Wittenburg LA. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs. Can J Vet Res. 2018;82(3):178-183.

Brutlag A, Hommerding H. Toxicology of Marijuana, Synthetic Cannabinoids, and Cannabidiol in Dogs and Cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2018;48(6):1087-1102.

Larsen C, Shahinas J. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials. J Clin Med Res. 2020;12(3):129-141.

Seizures

McGrath S, Bartner LR, Rao S, Packer RA, Gustafson DL. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019;254(11):1301-1308.

Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, et al. Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Epilepsia. 2014;55(6):791-802.

Tang R, Fang F. Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(7):699.

Jones NA, Glyn SE, Akiyama S, et al. Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures. Seizure. 2012;21(5):344-352.

Skin Health (Dermatitis)

Petrosino S, Verde R, Vaia M, Allarà M, Iuvone T, Di Marzo V. Anti-inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid, in Experimental Allergic Contact Dermatitis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018;365(3):652-663.

Miltner, Noémi and Béke, et al. (Assessment of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol and its fluorinated derivative in in vitro and in vivo models of atopic dermatitis. International Investigative Dermatology 2018, 2018.05.16-19,

Skin Health (General)

Río CD, Millán E, García V, Appendino G, DeMesa J, Muñoz E. The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;157:122-133.

Bíró T, Tóth BI, Haskó G, Paus R, Pacher P. The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(8):411-420.


Your Comprehensive Guide to CBD Oil for Dogs

We hope to have answered all of your questions about CBD for dogs in this comprehensive guide. However, we are here if you still have some questions left unanswered. Please do not hesitate to contact us with your questions. We are here to help!

 

 

Joey DiFrancesco

Joey is the founder of LolaHemp for Pets. In 2015 he launched Lolawawa's Pet Boutique, an e-commerce store for pet lovers and pets that donates a portion of profits to animal rescue efforts. In 2018 he launched LolaHemp in response to customers' growing demands for a natural product to help with common pet ailments, as well as the success his own dog (Lola) experienced with hemp oil.

 

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